Jiangxi, Known as Gan for short in Chinese, Jiangxi Province is situated at the middle and lower reaches of the southern bank of Yangtze River. Surrounded by mountain ranges on three sides and bordering the Yangtze River in the north and the Poyang Lake in the northeast, the province covers an area of 166,900 square kilometers with a population of 43.7 million. It is adjacent to Zhejiang and Fujian Province in the east, connects with Hubei and Anhui Province in the north, adjoins Guangdong Province in the south and Hunan Province in the west. Lying among Yangtze River Delta, Zhujiang River Delta, and Southeast Fujian Delta, Jiangxi serves as the important strategic supporting point of Central China.
Jiangxi is high in the south and low in the north. It is bordered by hills and mountains, the land generally sloping towards the Poyang Lake in the north. Hills and mountains account for 60% of the province's landmass. The mountains are not high and have many natural passages facilitating its link to other provinces. The Mufu, Jiuling, Wugong and Wanyang mountains lie in the west; the Dayuling and Jiulian mountains in the south; the Huaiyu and Wuyi mountains in the east; and Lushan Mountain in the north. There are many red-soil hills and basins in the central-south. The Ji?ˉan Basin in the south is a major farming area. The Poyang Lake Plain in the north is part of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Plain. With numerous rivers and streams, fertile soil and a dense population, it is known as a "granary south of the Yangtze River".