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Jiangxi Overview

        Jiangxi Province , praised for “a land endowed with rich natural resources and outstanding intelligent people”. lies on the southern bank of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River . Ganjiang River ---the largest and longest river in the province, flows through the whole area from south to north, so Jiangxi is abbreviated to “Gan”. Jiangxi was subordi-nate to Wu and Chu . After unified China by Qing Dynasty, most parts of Jiangxi are divided into Jiujiang prefecture, Han Dynasty established Yuzhang Commandery. In the three kingdoms period , most areas belonged to Yangzhou.In Han Dy-nasty , it was governed by Jiangzhou. During the Tang Dynasty, Jiangxi was under chiang-nan west way's territory, It has been called “ Jiangxi ” from then on. The South Sung and North sung Dynasty ,most areas belonged to Chiang-nan west way. In Yuan Dynasty, cabinet of Ministers was set up, including large parts of Jiangxi and Guangdong province. Ming Dynasty existed provincial Treasurer, of which areas amounted to that of today's Jiangxi province. Qing Dynasty estab-lished Jiangxi Province formally, which has been carrying on untilnow. Nowadays the total area of the province is 166,900 square kilometers.

 Jiangxi is a place with gorgeous ancient civilization and glorious revolutionary tradition, and it's also the cradle of the Chinese Revolution. Mao Zedong and Liu Shaoqi had ever organized and mobilized workers' movements in Anyuan, Pin-gxiang city, which is the earliest movement of China . Zhou Enlai, ZhuDe and other older generation of revolutionaries led the August First Uprising in Nanchang , which astonished all the nation. MaoZedong set up the rural revolutionary base in Jinggang Mr. of China, and Ruijin is the locus of central worker and peasant democratic government during the second Re-volutionary Civil War time. It's famous as “The Red City”. The Long March ( 25000li ) ,shaking the world, stepp-ed out the first step from this great place.

         Huaiyu Mt. and Wuyi Mt. are adjacent to Zhejiang and Fujian in the east, Dagengling andJiulian Mt. border on Gua-ngdong in the south, Jiuling Mt. , Wugong Mt. , Wanyang Mt. and other mountains are mutually dependent on Hunan in the west. It's the location of Jiangxi that mountains embrace it in the east, south, west, and in the north is one opening b-asin. All the rain flows into Poyang Lake —the largest fresh water lake in China , through Ganhe river, fuhe river, xinhe r-iver, xiuhe river and changhe river system. After all the river systems meet in the Poyang Lake, the water will pass by the mouth of the lake to Yangtze River which the north borders on, neighboring Hunan and Anhui province.

        The old liberated area of Jiangxi (including revolutionary bases and the guerrilla areas) is 113211 square kilometers, taking up 67.8% of the total area. The country of 100% of the old liberated area has 27 ones; 90%~96% of it has 6; while 50%~89% of it has 20;besides less than 50% of it has 25. There are 78 counties and cities containing old liberated towns and villages in the province; the old liberated villages scatter among 1064 towns, the number of towns is 834, in which the old liberated area takes up more than 50%.

         Jiangxi Province lies in the East China, on the southern bank of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River . The total territory area is 166,900 square kilometers, 1.74% of the whole nation's area, which is the top one among six provin-ces and one city of East China ( the area of mountainous region and mounds is 78%, hillock plain is 12%, and water field is 10%)
        Jiangxi is surrounded by mountains in the east, west and south; hills ups and downs in the middle. There is the first largest fresh w-ater lake of China in the north— Poyang Lake and plain area of it.

The topography is gradually inclined to the lake area from the east, south, and west, which consists of opening basin to the north. Ganjiang River goes through the province from the south to the north, accompanied with Fuhe river, Xinhe river, Raohe river and Xiushui river. Finally th-ey will come together into Poyang River from three directions and form one centripetal river system centered on Poyang Lake , then the water flows into Yangtze River through the mouth of the lake.

         Geomorphic types are various in Jiangxi Province . Among the whole area of country, more mountainous lands and less plain field; large proportion of red soil area; serious water and soil erosion in part of areas; and continuous decreasing of per captia of cultivated land.
         The total area accounts for 1.7% of national area, mountains is 6010 square kilometers, knoll is 70117 square kilo-meters ,Hillock plain is 20062 square kilometers ,water field is 16667 square kilo-meters.
         Due to the diversity of development and utilization, the soil-resources are suitable for developing kinds of corps and forestry, animal husbandry, sideline and fishery.Most of the land can be evergreen all the year.
Red soil area is 15,800,000 acres, 70.6% of the total area in Jiangxi . Water and soil erosion area is 51,000,000 acres, 20% of the total area; Unexploi-ted desolate hill, wild slope and wasteland area are more than 53,000,000 acres. Among these lands, low hill and high mo-untain area is 33,500,000 acres which can be used for develop-ing forest or herding. The slow sloping land ( the elevation under 100 meters and the slope below 15 degree is 12,230,000 acres, which can be developed farmland ,tea plants , fruit trees and mulberry field ;And the area of farming and forestry field , sporadic wastelands is 7,510,000 acres.